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Leadership Learning Methods Part 2
There are ten adult learning principles and methods that are grounded in neuroscience and andragogy I would like to survey for you in this session.
Let’s begin with the concept of motivation.
1. Motivation: Adults must want to learn
Studies have proven that adults learn most effectively when they are motivated to acquire a particular type of knowledge or develop a new skill.
2. Relevance: Adults must see connections to learn
The concept here is that adults learn most effectively when they see links between new information that they’re learning and their previous knowledge and experience, especially how the topic they’re learning relates to their life and to their work or ministry.
3. Participation: Adults must interact to learn
The concept here is that adults learn most effectively by an extensive use of interactive exercises that are critical for student engagement and learning, as opposed to and in contrast to traditional passive listening or passive reading.
4. Active Learning in Class: Adults must interact in class to learn
Adults learn most effectively in classes or groups when that time is used for active learning with the instructor and peers. Many studies have demonstrated that standard classroom lecturing is often a very ineffective mode of learning. A more effective classroom learning model is to “flip the classroom” so that students watch or listen to lectures outside of the classroom (as part of their homework) so that classroom time can be used for interactive engagement with the instructor and with peers.
5. Active Learning Outside Class: Adults must interact outside class to learn
Adults learn most effectively outside of classes or groups when that time is used for active learning with learning resources. This is especially true of homework where even brief audios or videos need to be paused periodically for students to answer a question to test whether they are truly understanding the concepts and the ideas. When adults are not actively participating in their learning outside of class it will have the same effect as being a passive learner in a formal classroom just listening to a long lecture.
6. Peer Learning: Adults must have interaction with peers to learn
Adults learn most effectively when they receive input and feedback on the subject they’re learning from both the instructor and their peers. Unlike most traditional education where the instructor is the only source of input and feedback, properly designed peer learning exercises and assessments can have a very significant impact on adult learning. Many studies have proven that students can learn actually more from constructive evaluation and feedback from others students than the instructor.
7. Competency-Based: Adults must have measurable competencies to learn
Adults learn most effectively when they are seeking to develop clearly defined goals, what we call holistic competencies while being held accountable through objective and measurable results. Unlike most traditional education that is primarily teacher/teaching-based, students learn best when their learning is primarily learner/competency-based. This requires clearly defined, measurable outcome-competencies (e.g. a learner profile), a learning process designed to develop those competencies, and learning assessments then to measure the results.
8. Problem-Solving: Adults must solve problems to learn
Adults learn most effectively when focusing on solving relevant, realistic problems as opposed to merely acquiring knowledge sequentially. Unlike most traditional education where the instructor shares solutions to problems and answer to questions, properly designed learning experiences that allow adults to discover solutions to problems and answers to questions is a much more effective learning process.
9. Mastery-Learning: Adults must have immediate feedback to learn
Adults learn most effectively when they receive immediate feedback from testing methods resulting in self-discovery. Unlike most testing methods in traditional education, students need to receive immediate feedback on any concepts that the student does not understand before moving on to be tested on another concept. This allows for ongoing re-study and re-attempts in self-discovery while completing assignments.
10. Hybrid Methods: Adults must have hybrid methods to learn
Adults learn most effectively when they are using integrated learning methods that are actually adapted to their unique context and learning styles. Unlike most traditional education that focuses mostly on formal learning methods, adult students learn best through integrating formal, non-formal, and informal methods according to their needs. Both face-to-face learning and online learning methods are considerably more effective than either method alone.